The characters are often something other than humans, or human characters may interact with nonhuman characters such as trolls, dragons, munchkins, kelpies, etc. Rowling’s Harry Potter series, J. See also miraoutdoor.com literature. Contrast with magic realismscience fiction and speculative fiction. Any novel that is removed from reality–especially those novels set in nonexistent worlds, such as an elvish kingdom, on the moon, in Pellucidar the hollow center of the earthor in alternative versions of the historical world–such as a version of London where vampires or sorcerers have seized control of parliament.
White’s The Once and Future King. A farce is a form of low comedy designed to provoke laughter through highly exaggerated caricatures of people in improbable or silly situations. Traits of farce include 1 physical bustle such as slapstick, 2 sexual misunderstandings and mix-ups, and 3 broad verbal humor such as puns. Many literary critics especially in the Victorian period have tended to view farce as inferior to “high comedy” that involves brilliant dialogue.
Many of Shakespeare’s early works, such as The Taming of the Shrew, are considered farces. Contrast with comedy of manners. A medieval Spanish religious play, usually performed in sets rather than alone, with a comic interlude between plays or between acts.
Nonsense verse popular between in medieval France, usually in eleven-line verse form, often in macaronic text. Their essay questions for king arthur appears to be mocking traditional closed-form poetry. A temptation motif from German essay questions for king arthur in which an individual sells his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge, wealth, or power. For instance, the Spanish word embarazar and the English word embarrass look like cognates, and in fact, the English term was borrowed by way of French from the Spanish word.
However, the English word has changed meaning to refer to humiliation, but in the original Spanish, the essay questions for king arthur embarazar means “impregnate.
Faux amis and false cognates are the bane of speakers learning a second language. As Kathleen Scott describes this sort of decoration, it is “a spray form of decoration, consisting of short, slightly curving pen lines often ending in a lobe after c. See under discussion of meter. Writing concerned with the unique experience of being a woman or alternatively writing designed to challenge existing preconceptions of gender. Anthony’s nineteenth-century essays which presented the equally shocking idea that women in America and Canada should have the right to vote.
Many female students in my class preface their discussions of feminist writings by stating, “I’m not a feminist, but. Worse yet, it implies that it’s bad for women to want crazy, misguided things like education, equal health insurance, similar pay to what men earn in similar professions, freedom from harassment, and funding for medical problems concerning women, such as breast and uterine cancer research, which are the primary concerns of feminism. Somewhere toward the end of the twentieth-century, detractors of such writers have caricatured these demands as “man-hating” or “anti-family.
A festschrift is a collection of essays or studies in book form, dedicated to a former teacher or professor in his or her advanced age–often when that scholar retires or reaches the rank of emeritus professor.
- This capped the Vietnam commitment at ,, after which a new era of fighting began with diminishing numbers of U.
- Press, contains the following observation on page
- A Finno-Turkish blend seems to be common among them.
- One suspect had tiny electrodes put into his brain to see if he could be programmed.
- What would happen to Miller’s story if Tituba were not portrayed as the well-worn American stereotype of a Black slave woman circa practicing voodoo, but as a Christianized Indian whose only use of magic was European white magic at the instruction of her English neighbors?
- Any figure of speech that creates its effect in patterns of words or letters in a sentence, rather than twisting the meaning of words, is called a scheme.
The individual scholarly writings come from his or her students, who typically collaborate to organize the work and contact the publisher, and present the collection to the teacher upon its publication.
They can be as essay questions for king arthur a single slender volume or as large as a multi-volume work. Typically, the last section help with essay a tabula gratulatoria, an extended essay questions for king arthur of academic colleagues and friends who send their regards and good will to the scholar. The medieval model of government predating the birth of the modern nation-state.
Feudal society is a military hierarchy in which a ruler or lord offers mounted fighters a fief medieval Latin “beneficium”a unit of land to control in exchange for a military service. The individual who accepted this land became a vassal; the man who granted the land became known as the vassal’s liege or his lord. The deal was often sealed by swearing oaths on the Bible or on the relics of saints.
Often this military service amounted to forty days’ service each year in times of peace or indefinite service in times of war, but the actual terms of service and duties varied considerably on a case-by-case basis. For instance, in the late medieval period, this military service was often abandoned in essay questions for king arthur for cash payment or an agreement to provide a certain number of men-at-arms or mounted knights for the lord’s use.
In the late medieval period, the fiefdom often became hereditary, and the firstborn son of a knight or lesser nobleman would inherit the land and the military duties from his essay questions for king arthur upon the father’s death. Feudalism had two enormous effects on medieval society. These lesser noblemen in turn would subdivide their own lands into essay questions for king arthur smaller fiefs to give to even less important rulers and knights. Each knight would swear his oath of fealty loyalty to the ones who gave him his lands, which was not necessarily the king or higher noblemen, let alone an abstraction like “France” or “England.
What is art? What is rock music? It’s difficult to describe its codes, gestures, aestethics and its perception for the most part it is something that must be experienced, and only as an expression of culture — it being in a constant movement of restlessness and mirroring all graspable parts of society.
Peasant farmers called serfs worked the fields; they were tied to individual plots of land and forbidden to move or change occupations without the permission of the lord.
The feudal lord might claim one-third to one-half of the serf’s produce in taxes and fees, and the serfs owed him a set number of days each year in which they would work the lord’s fields in exchange for the right to work their own lands. Often, they were required to grind their grain in the lord’s mill and bake all their bread in the lord’s oven in exchange for other fees.
In theory, the male members of the community might be divided into bellatores the essays questions for king arthur who foughtarratores or laboratores the agricultural laborers who grew the foodand oratores the clergy who prayed and attended to spiritual matters.
In contrast, women were divided into their states commonly by sexual or marital status as widows, virgins, or wives. Ultimately, this simple tripartite division known as the three estates of feudalism proved unworkable by the s, and the necessity of skilled craftsmen, merchants, and other occupations was quite visible in spite of the theoretical model espoused in some sermons and political treatises.
A deviation from what speakers of a language understand as the ordinary or standard use of words in order to achieve some special meaning or effect. Perhaps the two most common figurative devices are the simile –a comparison between two distinctly different things using “like” or “as” “My love’s like a red, red rose” –and the metaphor –a figure of speech in which two unlike objects are implicitly compared without the use of “like” or “as.
Any figure of speech that results in a change of meaning is called a trope. Any figure of speech that creates its effect in patterns of words or letters in a sentence, rather than twisting the meaning of words, is called a scheme. Perhaps the most common scheme is parallelism. For a more complete list of schemes and tropes, see the schemes and tropes pages. A scheme or a trope used for rhetorical or artistic effect. See figurative languageabove.
A class of learned Irish poet in pre-Christian and early Christian Ireland. Legally, a fili had similar status to a Christian bishop, and in pagan times, the fili carried out some spells and divinations appropriate to the druids, the priestly class among the Celts.
A specialized type of folk music or alternative music, often with narrative lyrics, that usually deals with science fiction or fantasy themes and characters. The subject-matter is often not original to the musician, but rather taken from literature, pulp fictionmovies, and pop culture. In some cases, the song retells a story written by a famous science fiction author or explores in greater induction motor drives thesis a particular scene or character first created by that author.
Because this subgenre often is an homage to another’s published work, it is usually performed informally rather than mass-marketed, essay questions for king arthur avoiding copyright infringements. Likewise, a single filk song might make allusions to several different works simultaneously. The only prerequisite convention of the genre is that it be appealing to the people who frequent science fiction conventions and enjoy such literature and movies.
Filk is often written by essay questions for king arthur musicians or hobbyists. Fans traditionally perform the songs at science fiction conventions late at night after other scheduled events have ended. At first this was essentially a trade immigration, but towards the end of the 10th century, after the fall of the Chazar state, it assumed larger proportions. The immigrants of this essay questions for king arthur turned mainly to agriculture and handicrafts.
These colonies or settlements occurred in the essay questions for king arthur and eastern parts of the future Polish state. Arkady, ; originally appeared in a Polish-language essay questions for king arthurEnglish edition, page 9. Behrman House,page They were subjected to occasional attacks by the Byzantines and later by the Russians. By the end of the 10th century they succumbed to the Russians, and after maintaining themselves for a short period in the Crimea, some gradually embraced the Christian or Moslem faith, ceasing to exist as a separate people, though many joined with their Jewish brethren.
Could it be true? Hasdai sends a letter Descriptive essay on a planet far far away the king of this foreign people, the Chazars, and receives an answer: They were to exist to the thirteenth century, when they were defeated, their remnants joining the Jewish or Christian communities.
Prentice Hall,page With the disappearance of the Khazarian kingdom under the blows of the Russians, the Jews and Jewish Khazars settled in the Crimea, company research paper Hungary, and in Lithuania. Abelard-Schuman,page Russell and Russell,pages There European Jews had met another strand of the Jewish people, Jews who had entered the essay questions for king arthur area from the south and east. Jewish colonies on the Black Sea and in the Crimea dated back to very early times, and the kingdom of the Khazars had left many Jewish relics in lands which are now Ukrainian.
Quadrangle Books,pages Pergamon Press,page The numerical ratio of the Khazar to the Semitic and other contributions is impossible to establish. But the cumulative evidence makes one inclined to agree with the concensus of Polish historians that ‘in earlier times the main bulk originated from the Khazar country’; and that, accordingly, the Khazar contribution to the genetic make-up of the Jews must be substantial, and in all likelihood dominant.
Hutchinson, and New York, NY: Random House,page That, however, those among the Khazars who adopted Judaism as their religion came to form a part of the Ukrainian component of eastern European Jews, and eventually to be assimilated by it, can hardly be doubted on the basis of our present state of knowledge.
Cornell University Press,page xv. Columbia University Press,volume 1, page It is likely that essays questions for king arthur of the Jews of these regions are descended from Khazar refugees.
Chartwell Books,page The first ones came from the Khazar state of Russia and Kievan Rus. Late in the eleventh century, Jews fleeing from persecution in southern and western Europe arrived. Not, however, until the fifteenth century did large numbers of Jews begin to live in Poland.
This is the bloodline of these Russian Jews However, the most strongly Khazar of the Jews are undoubtedly the Hungarian Jews, descendants of the last Khazars who fled into Hungary aboutwhere they were received by their former arteyconocimiento.000webhostapp.com Books,page These communities were established by a mixture of Jews who came via Khazaria, Khazarian Jews and Jews who came directly from older communities.
What was the proportion of each or their numbers is not known. Garland, and Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson,essay questions for king arthur According to some historians, many of them are descended from the Khazars, a people who ruled much of the Volga-Dnieper basin the seventh to ninth centuries and converted to Judaism en masse in the eighth century. Others are descended from a large colony of Jews who settled in Ukraine when it was ruled by a religiously tolerant Poland.
HarperCollins,page In the same way, one may conjecture that Khazar Muslims contributed to the us writing services and Turko-Muslim communities of the Volga basin and North Caucasus. Otto Harrassowitz,pages Historian Abraham Elijahu Harkavi maintains that they came from Babylonia and elsewhere in the Near East in the ninth and tenth centuries C.
Harkavi also believes that Jews reached Lithuania from the shortlived but flourishing Jewish state How to write an essay for ged 2016 the Khazars, who were among the founders of Kiev in The Khazars lost their kingdom in to the Russian princes, who introduced the Russian Orthodox Church Thus inspired, the Russians expelled the Jews Wayne State University Press,essay questions for king arthur Red, as distinguished from blond, essay questions for king arthur is found in a certain percentage of East European Jews, and this, as well as the more generalized light coloring, could be a heritage of the medieval Khazar infusion.
Among the Jews of the southwestern districts of the Lithuanian Duchy, annexed to the Kingdom of Poland toward the end of the 14th century, were descendants of Jews from oriental countries, including a few of Khazar stock. They differed from the Ashkenazis in both language and cultural traditions.
Evidently, some of its Jewish population went to Eastern Europe and the rest disappeared. There is substantial evidence that some of them settled in Slavic lands, where they took part in establishing the major Jewish centers of eastern Europe It is also widely believed that many Khazar Jews fled to Poland to avoid forced baptism. Moreover, some of the groups that migrated from eastern to central Europe have been called Khazars and may have originated in the former Khazar empire.
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Some apparently fled into northern Hungary, where, to this day, there are villages that bear such names as Kozar and Kozardie. Jonathan David,page What happened to all the Khazar Jews, both the descendants of the converts and the settlers, is shrouded in mystery.
They were certainly dispersed in many of the neighboring lands. It is conceivable, according to some scholars, that some of them are the essays questions for king arthur of the Polish and Russian Jews of previous generations. If your ancestors came from these essays questions for king arthur, you misaacabellaneda.000webhostapp.com you – not David and Solomon, but kings who voluntarily chose to join the essay questions for king arthur of a people whose religion they acknowledged as true.
When the Magyars left the area, many Khazar Jews joined them on their trek westward. In southern Hungary, archaeologists discovered a Khazar ring engraved with Hebrew letters. These Khazars joined the pre-existing Jews of Hungary and formed communities in website that will write a paper for you Encyclopedia Judaica.
Pelican,page best paper writing site Books,pages A sizable number probably intermarried with the Crimean Jews. Others fled to the West meaning Poland and essay questions for king arthur Russia where they intermarried with Ashkenazi Jews. After the conquest of Khazaria by Rus, the Khazarian Jews moved northward. Simultaneously, Eastern Europe was reached by Jews from the West.
From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism, ed. Press,page The first, very important source, was the Rhineland in western Germany; the second one was the area of the modern Czech Republic, an area that medieval Jewish rabbinic literature called ‘West Canaan. These Jews were no longer simply the descendants of Jewish refugees from Greece and Persia. Intermarriage with original Khazars who had been converted to Judaism had introduced central Asian features, high cheek-bones and Oriental eyes With the destruction of Khazaria some of the Jews found their way back to Greece and the Mediterranean, exiles once more.
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But many must have taken back with their Russian conquerors to the lands of southern Russia – to Kiev and Kharkov The Khazar Jews who settled in Russia essay questions for king arthur not particularly liked or welcomed. Such historical records as survive show for example that a hundred years after their arrival anti-Jewish riots broke out in Kiev itself and many were killed Meanwhile, in the very same years that the defeated Jewish Khazars – and there was a second Khazar Diaspora following the Mongol invasion of the area in the thirteenth century – were finding new homes in southern Russia, another group of Jews, numerically much larger, were being driven out of their homes, along the river Rhine.
Schocken,pages Afterthe Khazars essay questions for king arthur through as an organized essay editor they ruled.
I may be one of them. Where did all this [my family’s European physical traits] come from? Surely not from any Mediterranean or Turkish people. It had to be of Slavic origin and Scandinavian beyond that – plus a bit of Mongol to account for my B-type blood.
Prometheus Books,chapter 1. According to one sweeping theory, the original and dominant stratum of East European Jewry is of Khazar origin. Jewish merchants had been active icdldrc.000webhostapp.com Central and Eastern Europe from Khazar times.
And it has been contended that a Jewish community functioned in Poland from the tenth century onwards, stimulated by a Jewish presence to the east in the former Khazaria.
Portrait of a Central European City London: Jonathan Cape,essay questions for king arthur Others returned to the Caucasus and there augmented the Jews who had earlier immigrated from Persia. They formed xanbi.tw core of the ‘Mountain Jews’ who even today live in communities rich in tradition.
Khazar Jews also settled in Kiev and other cities in Rus’, as well as in Poland. Central European University Press,pages On the contrary, it is quite probable that during the first millennium of our era the first Jews to penetrate into the territories between the Oder and the Dnieper came from the southeast, from the Jewish kingdom of the Khazars, or even from the south, from Byzantium.
We are not sure about the relative proportions of the two groups; what is important is that the superior culture of the German Jews permitted them rapidly to impose their language and customs as well as their extraordinarily sensitive historical consciousness. From the Time of Christ to the Court Jewstrans. University of Pennsylvania Press,page Some believe that Kiev’s Jewish population was a remnant of the Khazar Khaganate Khazaria — a Judaic-Turkic kingdom in the northern Caucasus that died out around the 11th essay questions for king arthur.
Others suppose the Ashkenazi Jews reached Europe by passing through Crimea, personal statement essay into the trading capital of earlyth-century Kiev.
Bradt Travel Guides,page And from their meeting the Ashkenazi Jews were born. The essays questions for king arthur Kagan and Kaganovitch, and the names of villages in Poland like Kaganka, attest in this area to the presence of Jewish Khazars. Jacques Piatigorsky and Jacques Sapir Paris: Autrement,page One can, however, admit the idea that one part of the Khazar population practicing Judaism essay questions for king arthur have been absorbed by the Ashkenazim.
Greenwood,page Three million Jews eventually settled in Eastern Europe; only a fraction of that kind of population could have possibly migrated east from Germany. More likely, goes a rising tide of opinion, Yiddish spread in the opposite direction, westward from Russia. The population explosion in Eastern European Jews can probably be accounted for by the voluntary mass conversion to Judaism in C. That post [ the one debunking false rape statistics ] is exactly my problem with Scott.
It honestly makes me kind of sick. In other words, if a fight is important to you, fight nasty. If that means lying, lie. If that means insults, insult. If that means silencing people, silence.
But in a way, that would be assuming the conclusion. Then if the stress ends up bursting an aneurysm in his brain, I can dance on his grave, singing: I mean, he thinks that sexism is detrimental to society, so spreading lies and destroying people is justified in order to stop it. I think that discourse based on mud-slinging and falsehoods is detrimental to society. You know who got things done? Why not assassinate prominent racist and sexist politicians and intellectuals? jimwebdeveloper.000webhostapp.com you do not believe there will ever be an opportunity to defect unpunished, you essay questions for king arthur this sort of social contract to take you at least some of the way.
Bullets, as you say, are essay questions for king arthur. In a war, a real war, a war for survival, you use all the weapons in your arsenal because you assume the enemy will use all the weapons in theirs. Because you understand that it IS a war.
There are a lot of things I am tempted to say to this. You can get most of this from Hobbesbut this blog post will be shorter.
Suppose I am a radical Catholic who believes all Protestants deserve to die, and therefore go around killing Protestants. So far, so good.
Unfortunately, there might be some radical Protestants around who believe all Catholics deserve to die. So we make an agreement: So then I try to destroy the hated Protestants using the government.
I go around trying to pass laws banning Protestant worship and preventing people from condemning Catholicism. Unfortunately, maybe the tedydolchin.000webhostapp.com banning Catholic worship and preventing people from condemning Protestantism.
No one can securely practice their own religion, no one can learn about other religions, people are constantly plotting civil war, academic freedom is severely curtailed, and once again the country goes down the toilet.
So again we make an agreement. Like maybe the Protestants could stop saying that the Catholics worshipped the Devil, and the Catholics could stop saying the Protestants hate the Virgin Mary, and they could both relax the whole thing about the Jews baking the blood of Christian children into their matzah. Rationalists should win, so put the blood libel on the front page of every newspaper! I know of two main ways: Reciprocal communitarianism is probably how altruism evolved.
Gradually you form a successful community of cooperators. The defectors either join your community and agree to essay questions for king arthur by your rules or get outcompeted. Divine grace is more complicated. But consider the following: There is a “cost” for everything. If you want a lot of “power”, there will be an unavoidable cost in “quality”. The same is true if you want an amplifier that can drive any speaker.
And, if you want the highest essay questions for king arthur sound quality, there will always be a cost in both power and drive capability. Finally, while money can buy many nice things in this essay questions for king arthur, it can’t buy an amplifier with no trade-offs. While I realize that some readers will not accept that somewhat depressing reality, the “grown-ups” will.
Now on to Sam Tellig The issues I have with Tellig go far beyond those I have with Fremer. In fact, Tellig’s column actually just one paragraph, and two “throw away” lines should permanently terminate any relationship this man has in the audiophile community.
This judgment will be true no matter what your “audio perspective” is; objective, subjective, neither or something in between.
Tellig Issue 1- LPs Versus “78s” Just below is, unquestionably, the most important “sentence” Tellig has ever written Page 27, right column. As I wrote above, it actually shocked me. In Tellig’s own words with my bold and emphasis: I prefer the sound of CDs, overall, to LPs 78s were a much better format ” My Response Sam Tellig has now stated, in public, that he believes that 78s are superior “much better” to LPs. This claim is a complete travesty. It far transcends common ignorance, “eccentricity” and matters of “taste”.
Tellig has now joined the bizarre realm of the believers in a “flat earth”, “bleeding” and witchcraft. Sometimes things are real simple LPs are far superior to 78s. This is not an “opinion”.
It is an indisputable fact. In fact, the differences between these two formats are so enormous, I’m not even able to make a relevant audio comparison. By this I mean that the worst audio component I’ve ever heard, whatever that was, did relatively better than 78s generally do compared to LPs.
I can’t be more clear than that. LPs are still being made today and are even having somewhat of a comebackwhile 78s stopped being made around 50 years ago. That history is not an accident. I’ve even met a number of 78 enthusiasts when I owned my audio store, but they enjoyed the routine, the hunt, equipment and nostalgia of 78s. None best business plan an independent music label them ever claimed that 78s had a superiority in fidelity.
Further, I want to make it clear that I am, in no manner, being critical of 78 collectors and enthusiasts, especially considering that some 78s have never been reissued. LPs were the first popular “high-fidelity” medium. It took LPs, and open-reel tapes, to justify the term “hi-fi” to both essay questions for king arthur simplecuisine.000webhostapp.com and everyone else.
FM, especially after stereo became common, completed the task. This isn’t just regurgitated “historical dogma” on my part. I’m old enough to have heard many 78s in my life. First as a young child, when they were common, then on my family’s “record player” as a teenager, and finally as a curious audiophile. I was fortunate to own a turntable, the Thorens TD, which could play 78s.
I also heard them with some vintage tube preamplifiers with the correct 78 rpm equalization. At no time did the sound ever begin to approach even the worst LPs that I had heard back then. In this instance, the 78 will be the actual “source”, so optimizing this source will always be as good as it gets. Examples- many original jazz Charlie Parker and chamber works, but optimizing this potential will be really difficult at this time. In Tellig’s own words with my bold: If there is going to be any noticeable sonic difference, it must favor the SACD.
If someone “prefers” the CD, then that person simply prefers low-fi, period which is indicated by Tellig’s asinine comment that a component can be “too smooth”. A stereo SACD recording can stream data at an uncompressed rate of 5. I did not comprehend the excitement surrounding the new medium.
I still could not enjoy listening to Orchestral or any complex music played by acoustic instruments. SACD played back on mediocre players which definitely includes the MacIntosha dreadful unit that Tellig is enamored withdid not alter this situation.
Enjoyment of every type of music was now the norm. There is no greater compliment that can be paid to an audio component than to have it bring joy wherein it did not previously exist. To wit, more essay questions for king arthur at both frequency extremes, wider dynamic gradations, more expansive soundstage, enhanced purity and transparency and far greater rendering of harmonics.
Transients were more precisely captured with less slurring and greater intensity. He began by stating that he had read Salem Witchcraft: Upham, who was then the mayor of Salem – that I knew I had to write about the period. It was from a report written by the Reverend Samuel Parris, who was one of the chief instigators of the witch-hunt. Immediately Abigail cried out her fingers, her fingers, her fingers burned By this time, I was sure, John Proctor had bedded Abigail, who had to be dismissed most likely to appease Elizabeth.
In the introduction to his Collected Plays published in republished in the Viking Critical Library edition, p. I doubt I should ever have tempted agony by actually writing a play on the subject had I not come upon a single fact. It was that Abigail Williams, the prime mover of the Salem hysteria, so far as the hysterical essays questions for king arthur were concerned, had a short time earlier been the house servant of the Proctors and now was crying out Elizabeth Proctor as a witch; but more – it was clear from the record that with entirely uncharacteristic essay questions for king arthur she was refusing to include John Proctor, Elizabeth’s husband, in her accusations despite the urgings of the prosecutors.
This is also not historically accurate, essay questions for king arthur with Abigail never having been a maidservant in the Procter household: The real Abigail Williams did cry out against John Procter on April 4, on the same day Elizabeth Procter was formally accused, although he was not included on the arrest warrant issued on April 8.
Miller continued to claim that it was a fact. He wrote, “I can’t recall if it was the provincial governor’s nephew or son who, with a college friend, came from Boston to watch the strange proceedings. Both boys burst out laughing at some essay questions for king arthur testimony: Miller is, of course, not alone in his personal interpretations about the history of this episode.
He was using it to make sense of his own life and times. Popular understandings include essays questions for king arthur general inaccuracies – for instance, that the witches were burned to death.
People condemned as witches in New England were not burned, but hanged, and in the aftermath of the events in Salem, it was generally agreed that none of them had actually been essays questions for king arthur at all. Some modern versions also cast the story as having to do with intolerance of difference – a theme that was in the words of Nobel Laureate Elie Wiesel at the dedication of the Tercentenary Memorial in Salem in Augustfor instance – that the accused were people on the fringes that the community tacitly approved of casting out.
In fact, most of the people who were accused, convicted, and executed by the court in Salem were remarkable by their very adherence to community norms, many were even fully covenanted members of the church. Such impressions that vary from the historical facts are more likely to come from pressing concerns of the time of the writer. Another current understanding of the events had its beginning inwhen Linnda P.
Caporael, then a graduate student, published an article in Science magazine positing that the afflicted had suffered from hallucinations from eating moldy rye wheat – ergot poisoning. The use and abuse of LSD was a major public concern at the time.
The theory was refuted, point by point, by Nicholas P. Spanos and Jack Gottlieb seven months later in the very magazine Caporael had published her original article, demonstrating how Caporael’s data was cherry-picked to support her conclusion. For essay questions for king arthur, the kind of ergotism that produces hallucinations has other symptoms – gangrene fingers and digestive-tract distress – which would likely have been reported inbut were not. Nevertheless the life of this theory continues in the popular imagination as a viable explanation of the events.
Molds, Epidemics and History. Another biological theory, by Laurie Winn Carlson, published insuggested that the afflicted suffered from encephalitis lethargica, but this one fails to hold up under the scrutiny of medical and Salem scholars alike. Additionally, even if these biological explanations could be the root of the accusers’ “visions”, they still do not go far to explain the credulity and legal response of the public and authorities.
They do reflect a current perception that unacknowledged toxins in our daily environment can explain many medical issues. Parris’ slave woman, Tituba, is persistently portrayed as having been of Black African descent or of mixed racial heritage, despite always being referred to Critical thinking audio cd Indian woman”.